by Katie Ailes, To Publish or Not to Publish Performance Poetry by Katie Ailes, Donna Ogunnaike – Touch || Spoken Word Poetry, Dike Chukwumerije – Nothing like humiliation to make a good poet. What are the functions of literature? It is, therefore, not by characterization as such that the ultimate message can be rendered. It helps give structure to all the themes that a poet wishes to cover in a particular piece. Poetry is not at its best when it depicts a further possible experience, but when it initiates us, by feigning something which as an experience is impossible, into the meaning of the experience which we have actually had. What is that but to treat facts as an appearance, and their ideal import as a reality? If it evokes yawns, derision, or disdain, they are nudged in another. Its elements, and especially the emotional stimulation which it gives, may be suggested or expressed in verse; but landscape is not thereby represented in its proper form: it appears only as an element and associate of moral unities. Roman Jakobson defined six functions of language (or communication functions), according to which an effective act of verbal communication can be described. ’Poetry’ for Coleridge is a wider category than that of ‘poem’; that is, poetry is a kind of activity which can be engaged in by painters or philosophers or scientists and is not confined to those who employ metrical language, or even to those who employ language of any kind. The function of metaphor in poetry is to talk about one object or situation while alluding to another. But (he objects) most of these “poems” are unskillful and immature, especially those offered in the obligatory “open mike” events that accompany “featured” readings and are arguably the only reason most people attend readings in the first place. Functions of Poetry according to Arnold . Their contemporaries, their fellow-countrymen of many generations, may not perceive this defect, because they are naturally even less able than the poet himself to understand the necessity of so large a harmony. The conception of the poet as teacher was, of course, the traditional Greek view. James Merrill’s poetry has a social function in the sense of “social event”: it tries to produce—often, in the face of mortality, or dejection, or bodily ills—a sense that the poet has friends who get his jokes, who share his sense of things, who respond in kind. This enlightenment, I need hardly say, is not a matter of theory or of moral maxims; the enlightenment by which tragedy is made sublime is a glimpse into the ultimate destinies of our will. The poet retains by nature the innocence of the eye, or recovers it easily; he disintegrates the fictions of common perception into their sensuous elements, gathers these together again into chance groups as the accidents of his environment or the affinities of his temperament may conjoin them; and this wealth of sensation and this freedom of fancy, which make an extraordinary ferment in his ignorant heart, presently bubble over into some kind of utterance. At moments of crisis or loss, or at times of rejoicing, it can offer consolation, comfort, or a decisive way … Viewing poetry as an instrument in a dialogue between writer and reader takes some of the mystery out of this process. All writing has a specific structure. The strain of attention, the concentration and focusing of thought on the unfamiliar immediacy of things, usually brings about nothing but confusion. It is easier for words to be poetical without any thought, when they are felt merely as sensuous and musical, than for them to remain so when they convey an abstract notion—especially if that notion be a tart and frigid sophism, like that of the couplet just quoted. It is more important than religion. Hence flows the greatest opportunity of fiction. A man who thinks clearly will see that such self-determination of a will is inconceivable, since what has no external relation and no diversity of structure cannot of itself acquire diversity of functions. This is because there can be many ways of communicating the message using different expressions and intonations (Exemplode.com, 2017). All these functions are sources of value for individuals. In the construction of ideal characters, then, the imagination is busy with material—particular actions and thoughts—which suggest their unification in persons; but the characters thus conceived can hardly be adequate to the profusion of our observations, nor exhaustive, when all personalities are taken together, of the interest of our lives. Some have lost even the capacity to conceive of a true tragedy, because they have no idea of a cosmic order, or general laws of life, or of an impersonal religion. Our intelligence has become complex, and language, to express our thoughts, must commonly be more rapid, copious, and abstract than is compatible with singing. If Whitman’s work evokes widespread approval, then culture and civilization are nudged in a certain direction. But its argument does add weight to the negative side of the scale and tip the balance definitely in favour of chemical law and mortal decline . Learn. WE have found Music, presenting its dynamic series of sound forms in time relation, strikingly contrasting in function with sculpture and painting, the arts portraying forms in space relations. I do not know if such increased awareness makes us more moral or more efficient;I hope not. . Poetry can entertain or amuse, we say. He wanders into the by-paths of association because the by-paths are delightful. This labour of perception and understanding, this selling of the material meaning of experience is enshrined in our work-a-day language and ideas; ideas which are literally poetic in the sense that they are "made" (for every conception in an adult mind is a fiction), but which are at the same time prosaic because they are made economically, by abstraction, and for use. They dominated the world as we no longer dominate it, and lives, as we are too distracted to live, in the presence if the rational and the important. Yet the arguments over the merits of poems and poetic schools and trends, the complaints about the way poetry is taught and not taught, read and not read, suggest that those engaged in the process have quite diverse kinds of poems in mind, and are reading poems for quite diverse reasons, under diverse conditions. By this union of disparate things having a common overtone of feeling, the feeling is itself evoked in all its strength; nay, it is often created for the first time, much as by a new mixture of old pigments Perugino could produce the unprecedented limpidity of his colour, or Titian the unprecedented glow of his. He is co nfident . Poetry definition is - metrical writing : verse. But the majority of us retain some sense of a meaning in our joys and sorrows, and even if we cannot pierce to their ultimate object, we feel that what absorbs us here and now has a merely borrowed or deputed power; that it is a symbol and foretaste of all reality speaking to the whole soul. Sanctifying because it gives the… The foremost social function of poetry is that it ‘has to give pleasure’: (i) pleasure of entertainment and (ii) pleasure of value. In utterances where the poetic function is dominant (e.g. Test. Follow on Instagram and Subscribe on YouTube, Strategic Business Lessons from the Animal Kingdom. Create. The description of an alien character can serve this purpose only very imperfectly; but the presentation of the circumstances in which that character manifests itself will make description unnecessary, since our instinct will supply all that is requisite for the impersonation. The notion of “function” thus implies a negotiation between writer and reader, one not without effort on both sides, as represented by William Carlos Williams: The likelihood of misalignment between the expectations of readers and writers opens up the need for a negotiator or arbitrator between the two: an editor. Painting, architecture, and gardening, with the art of stage setting, have the visible landscape for their object, and to those arts we may leave it. The differentiation of the passions, as far as consciousness is concerned, depends on the variety of the objects of experience—that is, on the differentiation of the senses and of the environment which stimulates them. This higher plane is the sphere of significant imagination, of relevant fiction, of idealism become the interpretation of the reality it leaves behind. This discovery need not be an ethical gain—Macbeth and Othello attain it as much as Brutus and Hamlet—it may serve to accentuate despair, or cruelty, or indifference, or merely to fill the imagination for a moment without much affecting the permanent tone of the mind. The inexperienced mind remains a thin mind, no matter how much its vapours may be heated and blown about by natural passion. The poetry of fancy, of observation, and of passion moves on this intermediate level; the poetry of mere sound and virtuosity is confined to the lower sphere; and the highest is reserved for the poetry of the creative reason. “Poetry, like all art, has a trinitarian function: creative, redemptive, and sanctifying,” Vassar Miller asserted. Characters are initially imbedded in life, as the gods themselves are originally imbedded in Nature. Spell. We should hesitate to say that such writing was truly poetical; so that some euphuism would seem to be necessary as well as metre, to the formal essence of poetry. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Plato, while condemning Homer, was a kind of poet himself; his quarrel with the followers of the Muse was not a quarrel with the goddess; and the good people of Philistia, distrustful as they may be of profane art, pay undoubting honour to religion, which is a kind of poetry as much removed from their sphere as the midnight revels upon Mount Citheron, which, to be sure, were also religious in their inspiration. Here are 10 functions of literature everyone should know. The link that binds together the ideas, sometimes so wide apart, which his wit assimilates, is most often the link of emotion; they have in common some element of beauty or of horror. 00066--What is the function of Poetry according to Wordsworth? He has not written a line in forgetfulness that he was a Roman; he loves country life and its labours because he sees in it the origin and bulwark of civic greatness; he honours tradition because it gives perspective and momentum to the history that ensues; he invokes the gods, because they are symbols of the physical and moral forces by which Rome struggled to dominion. We fondly acknowledge the positivefunctions. He sees the affinities of things by seeing their common affinities with passion. But not all the functions are positive, even in poems acknowledged to be excellent. Conventions do not arise without some reason, and genius will know how to rise above them by a fresh appreciation if their rightness, and will feel no temptation to overturn them in favour of personal whimsies. If he seems sometimes to obscure a fact, it is only because he is restoring an experience. Because the poetry of a period has typical subjects and favored styles, it can serve as a marker of the tastes of its era. Homer's epic, "The Odyssey," described the wanderings of the adventurer, Odysseus, and has been called the greatest story ever told.During the English Renaissance, dramatic poets such as John Milton, Christopher Marlowe, and of course, William Shakespeare gave us enough words to fill textbooks, lecture halls, and universities. Email This BlogThis! The thrilling adventures which he craves demand an appropriate theatre; the glorious emotions with which he bubbles over must at all hazards find or feign their correlative objects. And the indulgence is no mere momentary pleasure; much of its exuberance clings afterward to our ideas; we see the more and feel the more for that exercise; we are capable of finding greater entertainment in the common aspect of Nature and life. Our logical thoughts dominate experience only as the parallels and meridians make a checkerboard of the sea. It is a situation we must learn to live with. Poetry then is one of the three major branches of literature. The creation of characters is what many of us might at first be tempted to regard as the supreme triumph of the imagination. Poetry; Prose; Drama; Site Map; Language Journal; Others; Link Exchange; Students Corner; Home » literature » The Functions of Literature The Functions of Literature . As common windows are intended only to admit the light, but painted windows also to dye it, and to be an object of attention in themselves as well as a cause of visibility in other things, so, while the purest prose is a mere vehicle of thought, verse, like stained glass, arrests attention in its own intricacies, confuses it in its own glories, and is even at time allowed to darken and puzzle in the hope of casting over us a supernatural spell. 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