When several black lawyers were refused admission to the American Bar Association in 1925, they founded the National Bar Association. Houston is also well known for having trained and mentored a generation of black attorneys, including Thurgood Marshall, future founder and director of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund and the first Black Supreme Court Justice. He returned to D.C. and taught English at Howard University, a historically black college. Education has always been the bellwether for inequality, not only in outcomes but in defining trajectory. Speaking is Charles … Areeda Hall, Room 522 He and those he taught and mentored laid the legal groundwork through thought and action that ultimately led to 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. His father William Le Pré Houston, the son of a former slave, had become an attorney and practiced in the capital for more than four decades. Miseducation: Is There Racial Inequality at Your School? "It is now widely believed that he was innocent. ", "Presentation of Portrait of the Honorable William B. Bryant, Chief Judge", "Judge Joseph C. Waddy, 67, of U.S. District Court Here, Dies", Superior Court of the District of Columbia, District Court for the District of Columbia, Leland B. Ware (1989), "Invisible Walls: An Examination of the Legal Strategy of the Restrictive Covenant Cases", Charles Hamilton Houston information at Cornell University, Biography of Houston at the "Brown at 50" website, The Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice at Harvard Law School, The Charles Hamilton Houston Institute, Madison, WI, Road to Brown transcript, California Newsreel, Presentation of University of Virginia. In the early 20th century, the organization had won a United States Supreme Court case, Buchanan v. Warley (1917), which prohibited state and local jurisdictions from establishing restrictive housing. Social Media Research Initiative Learn more. He defended African-American George Crawford on charges of murder in Loudoun County, Virginia, in 1933, and saved him from the electric chair. Houston attended segregated local schools, graduating from the academic (college preparatory) Dunbar High School. The Charles H. Houston Center on Facebook; Charles H. Houston Center eNotice; Give to the Center . He next married Henrietta Williams. When attorney Charles Hamilton Houston wanted show the inequality of segregation, he did not only present arguments in a courtroom. While arguing Brown v. Board of Education, Houston took a camera throughout South Carolina to identify examples of inequality existing … Houston was born in Washington, D.C., to a middle-class family who lived in the Striver section. Established in 2016, the Foundation connects boys and young men of color to the strategies they need to secure socioeconomic success by delivering innovative leadership & professional development programs for college and career readiness, facilitating connection with professional opportunities and transforming academic policies and practices. After his return, he was admitted to the Washington, DC bar in 1924 and joined his father's practice. I made up my mind that if I got through this war I would study law and use my time fighting for men who could not strike back. He earned the title "The Man Who Killed Jim Crow".[2]. In 1911 he joined Amherst College. Here we look at effective interventions that help level the playing field for poor children living in urban neighborhoods. While obtaining his law degree from Harvard School of Law, Houston became the first African-American editor of the Harvard Law Review. [1][5], After his return to the U.S. in 1919, he entered Harvard Law School. He was born to a practicing lawyer father William Le Pre Houston, and Mary Houston. After being chastised for, during a brief detail as a Judge Advocate, finding a Black sergeant not worthy of prosecution, Houston wrote later: The hate and scorn showered on us Negro officers by our fellow Americans convinced me that there was no sense in my dying for a world ruled by them. Men of Color National Summit Read more. civil-rights attorney Born: 1895 Birthplace: Washington, D.C. Houston, a powerful advocate of civil rights, helped gain ground for the movement by taking the fight to the court system. The defense team had challenged the all-white jury during the trial, but the conviction was upheld by the appeals court. And so that was the reason he started demanding equalization of salaries for teachers, equal facilities in the schools and all of that. In the documentary "The Road to Brown", Hon. Charles Hamilton Houston was born on the 3rd September 1895, in Washington D.C. He was one of 6 valedictorians in his graduating class. [14], Houston founded a law firm, Houston & Gardner, with Wendell P. Gardner, Sr. Charles Hamilton Houston conceived of and led the legal strategy leading to the end of legalized racial segregation in the United States. In the 21st century, attorneys continue to have to challenge prosecutorial strategies that exclude blacks from juries.[12][13]. Houston as an Army officer during World War I. All Rights Reserved. Charles' mother, Mary (née Hamilton) Houston, worked as a seamstress. 1545 Massachusetts Ave. Search for innovative approaches that are actually being used to rebuild. Education has always been the bellwether for inequality, not only in outcomes but in defining trajectory. Charles Hamilton Houston would lead one of the great legal campaigns of the twentieth century: the struggle to destroy Jim Crow, a struggle whose crucial victory would come in the landmark 1954 Supreme Court decision, Brown versus Board of Education. It was his time in the army… [7] Houston was a founding member of the affiliated Washington Bar Association. [20] Following Corrigan, Houston contributed to what was a 22-year campaign, in concert with lawyers he had trained, in order to overturn the constitutionality of restrictive covenants. [16][17][18] Ten members of the firm advanced to become judges, including Theodore Newman, Wendell Gardner, Jr., the son of Wendell Gardner; and Emmet Sullivan. He was recruited to the Howard University faculty by the school’s first African-American president, Mordecai Johnson. Gaines v. Canada (1939), Houston argued that it was unconstitutional for Missouri to exclude blacks from the state's university law school when, under the "separate but equal" provision, no comparable facility for blacks existed within the state. [15] The firm was prestigious but their work not well-compensated. [9] In Missouri ex rel. The Court ruled in Corrigan v. Buckley (1926) that such restrictions were the acts of individuals and beyond the reach of the constitutional protections. While Charles Hamilton Houston did not actively argue the Brown decision, he is given credit for laying the ground work that led to the NAACP strategy. Charles Hamilton Houston (September 3, 1895 – April 22, 1950) was a prominent African-American lawyer, Dean of Howard University Law School, and NAACP first special counsel, or Litigation Director. The Charles Houston Bar Association and the, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 13:57. The court ruled that "judicial enforcement of private right constitutes state action for the purpose of the fourteenth amendment. "[11] At the time, Oklahoma and southern states systematically excluded blacks from juries, in part because they were not on the voter rolls, having been disenfranchised across the South since the turn of the century by state barriers to voter registration. Houston left Howard in 1935 to serve as the first special counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), serving in this role until 1940. CHARLES HAMILTON HOUSTON: A GALLERY [Many of the images in this collection can be viewed at full size by clicking on them.] [18][19][17], Houston's efforts to dismantle the legal theory of "separate but equal" were completed after his death in 1950 with the historic Brown v. Board of Education (1954) ruling, which prohibited segregation in public schools. Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race & Justice, Aggressive Policing and the Educational Performance of Minority Youth. From 1929 to 1935, Houston served as Vice-Dean and Dean of the Howard University School of Law. Bringing prominent attorneys to the school as speakers and to build a law network for his students, Houston served as a mentor to a generation. Charles' mother, Mary (née Hamilton) Houston, worked as a seamstress. [14], Houston also directed the NAACP's campaign to end restrictive housing covenants. More broadly, we identify non-traditional educational pathways that seek to create an agile school to opportunity pipeline with multiple branches; thus ensuring–for real–that no child gets left behind. About Charles Hamilton Houston As the Vice Dean of Howard Law School, Houston engineered the multi-year legal strategy that led to the unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision, Brown v. Board of Education, repudiating the doctrine of “separate but equal” schools for black and white children. As the U.S. entered World War I, Houston joined the U.S. Army as an officer. A graduate of Amherst College and Harvard Law School, Houston played a significant role in dismantling Jim Crow laws, especially attacking segregation in schools and racial housing covenants. Notable … He earned a bachelor's of law in 1922 and a JD from Harvard in 1923. The Man That Killed Jim Crow: 9 Charles Hamilton Houston Facts For You! Houston valued his education at Amherst College in Massachusetts. Here we look at effective interventions that help level the playing field for poor children living in urban neighborhoods. He influenced nearly one-quarter of all the black lawyers in the United States at the time, including former student Thurgood Marshall, who became a United States Supreme Court justice. Charles Hamilton Houston. Charles Hamilton Houston was one of the most important figures in the history of the United States. Research encourages more support for Black and Hispanic male educational attainment. One of the most influential figures in African American life between the two world wars was Charles Hamilton Houston. Current Projects. [8] Houston believed that the law could be used to fight racial discrimination and encouraged his students to work for such social purpose. Find out here who is doing what to address the issues facing our communities. Houston is the namesake of the Charles Houston Bar Association and the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice at Harvard Law School, which opened in the fall of 2005. Read the most recent academic and policy research on the individual and community damage wrought by decades of underdevelopment. He focused on law schools because, at the time, mostly males attended them. His father William Le Pré Houston, the son of a former slave, had become an attorney and practiced in the capital for more than four decades. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Charles Hamilton Houston in höchster Qualität. Houston went to Dunbar High School. From 1917 to 1919, he served as a First Lieutenant in the United States Infantry, based in Fort Meade, Maryland, with service in France. The Charles Hamilton Houston Internship Program (“Houston Program”) is designed to provide Amherst College students with substantive, meaningful summer internship opportunities in various industries across the U.S. and abroad. The Charles Hamilton Houston Foundation, Inc. is a empowerment and advocacy nonprofit organization working to improve college and career access for all students of color. Through his work at the NAACP, Houston played a role in nearly every civil rights case that reached the US Supreme Court between 1930 and Brown v. Board of Education (1954). But Charles Hamilton Houston—known as “the man who killed Jim Crow”—spent a lifetime initiating the blow that would ultimately lead to the demise of institutionalized segregation in the United States. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_Hamilton_Houston&oldid=994777190, Activists for African-American civil rights, Dunbar High School (Washington, D.C.) alumni, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 1950, Houston was posthumously awarded the NAACP's. Charles Hamilton Houston Pre-Law Institute . He extended its part-time program to a full-time curriculum and gained accreditation by the Association of American Law Schools and the American Bar Association. [10], In the related Hollins v. State of Oklahoma (1935), Houston led an all-black legal team before the US Supreme Court to appeal another murder case in which the defendant was convicted by an all-white jury and sentenced to death. It later included, as name partners, William H. Hastie, William B. Bryant, Emmet G. Sullivan, and Joseph C. Waddy, each of whom were later appointed as federal judges. Hearing the case a certiorari, the Supreme Court reversed the lower court's decision and ordered a new trial. "A lawyer is either a social engineer or [s]he's a parasite on society." As Special Counsel to the NAACP, Houston dispatched Thurgood Marshall, Oliver Hill and other young attorneys to work a litigation campaign of court challenges to equalize teachers' salaries. Read a guest blog on this topic by Peter Edelman. Charles Hamilton Houston was the principal attorney for the NAACP. Houston was born in Washington, D.C., to a middle-class family who lived in the Striver section. In addition, there is a professorship at Harvard Law named after him. Houston was also a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. Harvard Law School Juanita Kidd Stout described Houston's strategy related to segregated schools: When he attacked the "separate but equal" theory his real thought behind it was that "All right, if you want it separate but equal, I will make it so expensive for it to be separate that you will have to abandon your separateness." Houston played a significant role in dismantling the Jim Crow laws, which earned him the title "The Man Who Killed Jim Crow". Hollins was tried a third time, again before an all-white jury, and was convicted in 1936. [9], Houston worked to bring an end to the exclusion of African Americans from juries across the South. Born September 3,1895, in Washington, DC; died of a heart attack, April 22,1950; son of William (a lawyer) and Mary (a teacher, hairdresser, and seamstress) Hamilton; married Margaret Gladys Moran, August 23, 1924 (divorced, 1937); married Henrietta Williams, September 14, 1937; children: Charles, Jr. Education: © 2018 Charles Hamilton Houston Institute. [Alfred L. Brophy, "Hollins v. State of Oklahoma (1935)"], National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, "Howard University School of Law: Preparing for Struggle", NAACP History: "Charles Hamilton Houston", "Exclusion of Blacks From Juries Raises Renewed Scrutiny (Published 2015)", "Why Is It So Easy for Prosecutors to Strike Black Jurors? He orchestrated a campaign to force southern districts to build facilities for blacks equal to those for whites, or to integrate their facilities. [4] Houston attended segregated local schools, graduating from the academic (college preparatory) Dunbar High School. Harvard Symposium Examines Charles Hamilton Houston’s Enduring Legacy. Charles Hamilton Houston, (born September 3, 1895, Washington, D.C., U.S.—died April 22, 1950, Washington, D.C.), American lawyer and educator instrumental in laying the legal groundwork that led to U.S. Supreme Court rulings outlawing racial segregation in public schools. "[21] Houston's use of sociological materials in these cases lay the groundwork for the approach and ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954). At one point Houston had carried a movie camera as he traveled across South Carolina, in order to document the inequalities of facilities, materials and teachers' salaries between African-American and white education. This was achieved in the US Supreme Court ruling in Shelley v. Kraemer (1948). -Charles Hamilton Houston Charles Hamilton Houston, a groundbreaking lawyer and educator, is credited with having recognized in the 1930s that the incipient black civil rights movement would achieve its greatest and most lasting successes in the courtroom. We Came to Learn: A Call to Action for Police-Free Schools, CHHIRJ Proposal Selected for Radcliffe Exploratory Seminar. Houston earned his A.B. They had Houston's only child in 1940, Charles Hamilton Houston, Jr.[6]. Houston has been called “The Man who Killed Jim Crow” for his work in helping to end segregation. After graduation, Houston went on to teach 2 years at Howard University before enlisting in the United States Army. That same year he was awarded a Sheldon Traveling Fellowship to study at the University of Madrid. DT’s devotion to legal education is reflected in his 1979 founding of the Charles Hamilton Houston Law School Preparatory Institute (“CHH”), a self-sufficient, intense seven week law school program which prepares entering and prospective law students for the rigorous challenges of the first year of law study. He developed the school, beginning its years as a major national center for training black lawyers. Houston's strategy on public education was to attack segregation by demonstrating the inequality resulting from the "separate but equal" doctrine dating from the Supreme Court's Plessy v. Ferguson (1897). As the NAACP continued with its campaign in the 1940s, Houston drew from contemporary sociological and other studies to demonstrate that such covenants and resulting segregation produced conditions of overcrowding, poor health, and increased crime that adversely affected African-American communities. He was later to write: The hate and scorn showered on us Negro officers by our fellow Americans convinced me that there was no sense in my dying for a world ruled by them. [21], Houston died from a heart attack on April 22, 1950, at the age of 54.[22]. 2 talking about this. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Charles Hamilton Houston sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. He believed this would obviate the fears whites expressed that integrated schools would lead to interracial dating and marriage. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} Father and son lawyer and civil rights activist Charles Houston Hamilton and William L Houston preparing for a civil rights legal case, 1960. The military was racially segregated. A scholar and lawyer, he dedicated his life to freeing his people from the bonds of racism. He was sentenced to life in prison, where he died in 1950. More broadly, we identify non-traditional educational pathways that seek to create an agile school to opportunity pipeline with multiple branches; […] from Amherst College at age 19 and then began teaching English at Howard University. He studied at Amherst College beginning in 1911, was elected to the Phi Beta Kappahonor s… Upcoming Events. [6], In 1924 Houston married Gladys Moran. (Courtesy of Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University Archives) He was the first black student elected to the editorial board of the Harvard Law Review and graduated cum laude. Charles Hamilton Houston Born: September 3, 1895 Died: April 22, 1950 Undergraduate Degree: Amherst College Law Degree: Harvard Law School, 1922, Doctorate of Law, 1923 While Charles Hamilton Houston did not actively argue the Brown decision, he is given credit for laying the ground work that led to the NAACP strategy. They divorced in 1937. In 1958, the main building of the Howard University School of Law was dedicated as Charles Hamilton Houston Hall. He studied at Amherst College beginning in 1911, was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa honor society,[1] and graduated as valedictorian in 1915, the only black student in his class. In this capacity he created litigation strategies to attack racial housing covenants and segregated schools, arguing several important civil rights cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. Cambridge, MA 02138. Charles with his Father and Mother Charles Houston grew up in a middle-class family in Washington, D.C. His father, William Le Pre Houston, was an attorney, and his mother, Mary Hamilton Houston, a seamstress. Jury during the trial, but the conviction was upheld by the appeals court the Road to ''! This would obviate the fears whites expressed that integrated schools would lead to interracial dating marriage... Focused on Law schools because, at the University of Madrid Police-Free schools, CHHIRJ Selected! Naacp 's campaign to force southern districts to build facilities for blacks equal to those whites. Professional Success for Boys & Young Men of Color helping to end segregation Killed Jim ”. A member of the fourteenth amendment was recruited to the end of legalized racial in... War I an officer Hamilton Houston Facts for You he was innocent now widely that... The history of the Howard University School of Law was recruited to the end legalized... Inc. education Management Transforming the academic ( college preparatory ) Dunbar High School on society ''. And taught English at Howard University School of Law was dedicated as Hamilton. A full-time curriculum and gained accreditation by the Association of American Law schools because, at.! Dunbar High School community damage wrought by decades of underdevelopment helping to segregation... During World War I the court ruled that `` judicial enforcement of private constitutes! Born in Washington, DC Bar in 1924 Houston married Gladys Moran court ruled that `` judicial of., Charles Hamilton Houston conceived of and led the legal strategy leading to the editorial board of Howard... The US Supreme court ruling in Shelley v. Kraemer ( 1948 ) a major National for. Life in prison, where he died in 1950 conceived of and led legal. The end of legalized racial segregation in the history of the most figures! The two World wars was Charles Hamilton Houston sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von images... Harvard in 1923 7 ] Houston was also a member of the fourteenth amendment 1948 ) jury during trial... As the U.S. entered World War I, Houston went on to 2! Dc Bar in 1924 Houston married Gladys Moran defining trajectory earned a bachelor 's of Law in 1922 and JD. Challenged the all-white jury, and was convicted in 1936 the appeals court officer during World War I, founded... Educational attainment the two World wars was Charles Hamilton Houston in höchster Qualität Houston was born to a practicing father... 2 years at Howard University, a historically black college charles hamilton houston education directed NAACP. To 1935, Houston also directed the NAACP 's campaign to end restrictive covenants... ] the firm was prestigious but their work not well-compensated Law firm, Houston worked to an! To 1935, Houston also directed the NAACP 's campaign to force southern districts to build for. [ 15 ] the firm was prestigious but their work not well-compensated accreditation the... Decision and ordered a new search to explore more stock photos and images available, or start new! Hispanic male educational attainment of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity worked to bring an end to the of... Lawyers were refused admission to the Washington, DC Bar in 1924 Houston married Gladys Moran is either social! Work not well-compensated obtaining his Law degree from Harvard School of Law was dedicated Charles... The legal strategy leading to the Center was admitted to the Center Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Charles Houston! ” for his work in helping to end segregation his return to the Center United States defense had! Salaries for teachers, equal facilities in the history of the most important figures in American! Has always been the bellwether for inequality, not only in outcomes but in defining trajectory the editorial of.